Churches in Cork

Holy Trinity Church - Cork
Cork City has several beautiful churches, each with its character and history. This article presents some of the buildings from around Cork City that are part of the city's rich architectural heritage.

There are over 130 churches in Cork City and they can be found all over the city, from residential areas to business districts to shopping malls. They are usually built of stone as this is the most common material available near the Irish coast.

The church is one of the most iconic buildings in Cork City. From its imposing exterior architecture to its magnificent interior, it offers a rare glimpse into the history of this country.

It is hard not to be impressed by this architectural wonder. The church has played an important role in the lives of many people, being a centre for community and spiritual needs.

The church has changed dramatically over time, but it will always remain an important part of our city's identity.

The church is one of the oldest human institutions still in existence today. It has played an important role in the community for centuries, but not just by providing spiritual guidance. Churches form the backbone of many communities and have also provided many other services to people in need over time.

Today, churches are still places where people gather to worship, but they are also much more than that. As the population grows and urbanisation occurs, so does the need for services like food banks and homeless shelters. Churches now serve as de facto community centres for those who cannot afford to go elsewhere. For this reason, churches must be maintained at Cork City or all of these benefits will disappear over time.

It is hard to decide which church in Cork City to visit when you are there for the first time. There are so many churches throughout the city and each claims to be different in one way or another. Some are older than others or they may hold different types of services.

Amoung churches you can visit some other things to do in Cork like restaurants in Cork and courthouse.

The most famous and largest church in Cork, Saint Fin Barre's Cathedral.
Grace church Cork City

Churches in Cork, Ireland

Informations about Cork, Munster

Bus Stops in Cork, Munster to Nosta Restaurant

Bus Stop in Cork Bus Station, Cork Parnell Place Bus Station Cork, Munster to Nosta Restaurant

Bus Stop in St Patrick's Street Cork, Munster to Nosta Restaurant

Bus Stop in Drawbridge Street Cork, Munster to Nosta Restaurant

Bus Stop in Western Road Cork, Munster to Nosta Restaurant

Bus Stop in Upper John Street Cork, Munster to Nosta Restaurant

Bus Stop in Southern Road Cork, Munster to Nosta Restaurant

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Bus Stop in Cork City Bus Station (Parnell Place) Cork, Munster to Nosta Restaurant

Bus Stop in Summerhill South Cork, Munster to Nosta Restaurant

Bus Stops in Cork City, Munster to Nosta Restaurant

Bus Stop in Cork Bus Station, Cork Parnell Place Bus Station Cork City, Munster to Nosta Restaurant

Bus Stop in Drawbridge Street Cork City, Munster to Nosta Restaurant

Bus Stop in St Patrick's Street Cork City, Munster to Nosta Restaurant

Bus Stop in Upper John Street Cork City, Munster to Nosta Restaurant

Bus Stop in UCC Western Rd Cork City, Munster to Nosta Restaurant

Bus Stop in Western Road Cork City, Munster to Nosta Restaurant

Bus Stop in Cork City Bus Station (Parnell Place) Cork City, Munster to Nosta Restaurant

Bus Stop in St Patrick's Street Cork City, Munster to Nosta Restaurant

Bus Stop in City Hall Cork City, Munster to Nosta Restaurant

Bus Stop in Lower Glanmire Road Cork City, Munster to Nosta Restaurant

Bus Stop in Washington Street Cork City, Munster to Nosta Restaurant

Bus Stop in Victoria Road Cork City, Munster to Nosta Restaurant

Map of Cork, Munster

Map of Cork City, Munster

Driving Directions in Cork, Munster to Nosta Restaurant

Driving Directions from Trinity Presbyterian Church to 4 Marlborough St, Centre, Cork, T12 WN26, Ireland

Driving Directions from Sacred Heart Catholic Church to 4 Marlborough St, Centre, Cork, T12 WN26, Ireland

Driving Directions from St Francis Roman Catholic Church to 4 Marlborough St, Centre, Cork, T12 WN26, Ireland

Driving Directions from Saints Peter and Paul's Roman Catholic Church to 4 Marlborough St, Centre, Cork, T12 WN26, Ireland

Driving Directions from Holy Trinity Roman Catholic Church to 4 Marlborough St, Centre, Cork, T12 WN26, Ireland

Driving Directions from Saint Fin Barre's Cathedral to 4 Marlborough St, Centre, Cork, T12 WN26, Ireland

Driving Directions from Shandon Bells & Tower St Anne's Church to 4 Marlborough St, Centre, Cork, T12 WN26, Ireland

Driving Directions from St Augustine's Church to 4 Marlborough St, Centre, Cork, T12 WN26, Ireland

Driving Directions from Cork Church to 4 Marlborough St, Centre, Cork, T12 WN26, Ireland

Driving Directions from St. Patrick's Roman Catholic Church to 4 Marlborough St, Centre, Cork, T12 WN26, Ireland

Driving Directions from St Vincent's Catholic Church and Presbytery, Cork to 4 Marlborough St, Centre, Cork, T12 WN26, Ireland

Driving Directions from Grace Christian Church to 4 Marlborough St, Centre, Cork, T12 WN26, Ireland

Driving Directions in Cork City, Munster to Nosta Restaurant

Driving Directions from Trinity Presbyterian Church to 4 Marlborough St, Centre, Cork, T12 WN26, Ireland

Driving Directions from St Francis Roman Catholic Church to 4 Marlborough St, Centre, Cork, T12 WN26, Ireland

Driving Directions from Saints Peter and Paul's Roman Catholic Church to 4 Marlborough St, Centre, Cork, T12 WN26, Ireland

Driving Directions from Shandon Bells & Tower St Anne's Church to 4 Marlborough St, Centre, Cork, T12 WN26, Ireland

Driving Directions from Sacred Heart Catholic Church to 4 Marlborough St, Centre, Cork, T12 WN26, Ireland

Driving Directions from Holy Trinity Roman Catholic Church to 4 Marlborough St, Centre, Cork, T12 WN26, Ireland

Driving Directions from Cork Church to 4 Marlborough St, Centre, Cork, T12 WN26, Ireland

Driving Directions from St Augustine's Church to 4 Marlborough St, Centre, Cork, T12 WN26, Ireland

Driving Directions from Saint Fin Barre's Cathedral to 4 Marlborough St, Centre, Cork, T12 WN26, Ireland

Driving Directions from Grace Christian Church to 4 Marlborough St, Centre, Cork, T12 WN26, Ireland

Driving Directions from St. Patrick's Roman Catholic Church to 4 Marlborough St, Centre, Cork, T12 WN26, Ireland

Driving Directions from Presbyterian Church, Cork to 4 Marlborough St, Centre, Cork, T12 WN26, Ireland

Location of churches in Cork City

Holy Trinity Roman Catholic Church

Holy Trinity Roman Catholic Church

Holy Trinity Roman Catholic Church Reviews

St Francis Roman Catholic Church

St Francis Roman Catholic Church

St Francis Roman Catholic Church Reviews

St Augustine's Church

St Augustine's Church

St Augustine's Church Reviews

Saint Fin Barre's Cathedral

Saint Fin Barre's Cathedral

Saint Fin Barre's Cathedral Reviews

Saints Peter and Paul's Roman Catholic Church

Saints Peter and Paul's Roman Catholic Church

Saints Peter and Paul's Roman Catholic Church Reviews

St. Finbarr’s South Roman Catholic Church

St. Finbarr’s South Roman Catholic Church

St. Finbarr’s South Roman Catholic Church Reviews

Sacred Heart Catholic Church

Sacred Heart Catholic Church

Sacred Heart Catholic Church Reviews

Cork Church

Cork Church

Cork Church Reviews

Shandon Bells & Tower St Anne's Church

Shandon Bells & Tower St Anne's Church

Shandon Bells & Tower St Anne's Church Reviews

Grace Christian Church

Grace Christian Church

Grace Christian Church Reviews

Facts about Cork City, Cork

From top, left to right: City Hall, the English Market, Quadrangle in UCC, the River Lee, Shandon Steeple
From top, left to right: City Hall, the English Market, Quadrangle in UCC, the River LeeShandon Steeple
Coat of arms of Cork
Coat of arms
The Rebel CityLeesideThe Real Capital
Statio Bene Fida Carinis(Latin)
"A safe harbour for ships"[1][2]
Location of Cork
Cork is located in Ireland
Location within Ireland
Coordinates: 51°53′50″N 8°28′12″WCoordinates51°53′50″N 8°28′12″W
State Ireland
Province Munster
Region Southern
County Cork
Founded 6th century AD
City rights 1185 AD
 • Type Cork City Council
 • Lord Mayor Deirdre Forde (FG)
 • Local electoral areas
  • Cork City North West
  • Cork City North East
  • Cork City South Central
  • Cork City South East
  • Cork City South West
 • Dáil constituency
 • European Parliament South
 • City 187 km2 (72 sq mi)
 • Urban 174 km2 (67 sq mi)
 • Metro 820 km2 (320 sq mi)
 • City 222,333[3]
 • Density 1,188/km2 (3,080/sq mi)
 • Metro
 • Demonym Corkonian or Leesider
Time zone UTC0 (WET)
 • Summer (DST) UTC+1 (IST)
T12 and T23
Area code 021
Vehicle index
mark code

Facts about Church

Church of Ireland

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Church of Ireland
Eaglais na hÉireann (Irish)
Kirk o Airlann (Scots)
Church of Ireland teal web logo.svg
Classification Anglican
Orientation Broad church (including variations of high church and low church)
Theology Anglican doctrine
Polity Episcopal
Primates Archbishop of Armagh – John McDowell
Archbishop of Dublin – Michael Jackson
Region Ireland
Language EnglishIrish
Headquarters Church of Ireland House
Church Avenue
Dublin D06 CF67
Founder Saint Patrick
Origin c. 432 AD (as the Celtic Church)[citation needed]
Separated from Roman Catholic Church in 1534
Congregations 1100 places of worship
450 parishes[1]
Members 375,400[2]
Official website
Part of a series on
Canterbury Cathedral - Portal Nave Cross-spire.jpeg
Ministry and worship
Background and history
icon Christianity portal

The Church of Ireland (IrishEaglais na hÉireannpronounced [ˈaɡlˠəʃ n̪ˠə ˈheːɾʲən̪ˠ]Ulster-ScotsKirk o Airlann)[3] is a Christian church in Ireland and an autonomous province of the Anglican Communion. It is organised on an all-Ireland basis and is the second largest Christian church on the island after the Roman Catholic Church. Like other Anglican churches, it has retained elements of pre-Reformation practice, notably its episcopal polity, while rejecting the primacy of the Pope.

In theological and liturgical matters, it incorporates many principles of the Reformation, particularly those of the English Reformation, but self-identifies as being both Reformed and Catholic, in that it sees itself as the inheritor of a continuous tradition going back to the founding of Christianity in Ireland.[4] As with other members of the global Anglican communion, individual parishes accommodate different approaches to the level of ritual and formality, variously referred to as High and Low Church.[5]


The Church of Ireland sees itself as that 'part of the Irish Church which was influenced by the Reformation, and has its origins in the early Celtic Church of St Patrick'.[6][incomplete short citation] This makes it both "Catholic", as the inheritor of a continuous tradition of faith and practice, and Protestant, since it rejects the authority of Rome and accepts changes in doctrine and liturgy caused by the Reformation.[6]

Following the Synod of Ráth Breasail (also known as Rathbreasail) in 1111,[7] Irish Catholicism transitioned from a monastic to a diocesan and parish-based mode of organisation and governance. Many Irish present-day dioceses trace their boundaries to decisions made at the synod. The work of organizing the Church was completed by the Synod of Kells which took place in 1152, under the presidency of Giovanni Cardinal Paparoni. Diocesan reform continued and the number of archbishoprics was increased from two to four. The synod granted the Primacy of Ireland to the Archdiocese of Armagh.

Some modern scholarship argues that early Irish Christianity was functionally separate from Rome but shared much of its liturgy and practice, and that this allowed both the Church of Ireland and Irish Catholicism to claim descent from Saint Patrick.[8][page needed] It is also said that the Catholic Church in Ireland was jurisdictionally independent until 1155, when Pope Adrian IV purported to declare it a papal fief and granted Henry II of England the Lordship of Ireland in return for paying tithes; his right to do so has been disputed ever since.[9]

In 1534, Henry VIII broke with the Papacy and became head of the Church of England; two years later, the Irish Parliament followed suit by appointing him head of the Irish church. Although many bishops and most of the clergy refused to conform, the new Church of Ireland retained possession of diocesan buildings and lands, since under the feudal system bishops held that property as vassals of the Crown.[6][incomplete short citation] Despite the political and economic advantages of membership in the new church, a large majority of the Irish remained loyal to the Church of Rome, while in Ulster the church was outnumbered by Presbyterians. However, it remained the established church of the whole of Ireland until the First Gladstone ministry’s Irish Church Act 1869 disestablished it, with effect from 1 January 1871.[10]

The modern Church of Ireland is the second largest religious organisation in the Republic of Ireland, and the third largest in Northern Ireland, after the Roman Catholic and Presbyterian churches.[11][failed verification]



Main article: Reformation in Ireland
Pope Adrian IV, who claimed Ireland for the Papacy in 1155

Christianity in Ireland is generally dated to the mid to late fifth century CE, when the Romano-British cleric Saint Patrick began his conversion mission, although the exact dates are disputed.[12] Prior to the 12th century, the Irish church was independent[citation needed] of Papal control, and governed by powerful monasteries, rather than bishops. While the Kingdom of Dublin looked to the English Diocese of Canterbury for guidance, in 1005 CE Brian Ború made a large donation to the Monastery of Armagh and recognised its Archbishop as Primate of all Ireland in an attempt to secure his position as High King of Ireland.[13]

Inspired by Máel Máedóc Ua Morgair, reformist head of Bangor Abbey, the 1111 Synod of Ráth Breasail sought to reduce the power of the monasteries by creating Dioceses headed by bishops, as was common outside Ireland. Under the 1152 Synod of Kells, the Irish church received its own archbishops, rather than being subject to Canterbury.[14] Under the Laudabiliter in 1155, English-born Pope Adrian IV granted Henry II of England the Lordship of Ireland in return for paying tithes to Rome. His claim was based on the 4th century Donation of Constantine, which allegedly gave the Papacy religious control over all Christian territories in the western Roman Empire. Its legality was disputed at the time, since Ireland had never been part of the empire, while the Donation itself was later exposed as a forgery.[15]

Since Ireland was now considered a Papal fief, its bishops were appointed by Rome but generally adopted English liturgy and saints, such as Edward the Confessor, and Thomas Becket.[16] In 1536, the Irish Parliament followed their English colleagues by accepting Henry VIII of England as head of the church, rather than the Pope. This marks the founding of the reformed Church of Ireland, confirmed when Henry became King of Ireland in 1541. Largely restricted to Dublin, led by Archbishop George Browne, it expanded under Edward VI, until Catholicism was restored by his sister Mary I in 1553.[17]

Henry II with Thomas Becket; the 1155 intervention was the start of efforts to Anglicise the Irish church

When Elizabeth I of England became queen in 1558, only five bishops accepted her Religious Settlement, and most of the Irish clergy had to be replaced.[18] This was hampered by the church's relative poverty, while adapting to the changes of regime damaged the reputation of those who remained. Hugh Curwen was Dean of Hereford until 1555, when Mary made him Catholic Archbishop of Dublin, before returning to the reformed church in 1558. Despite accusations of 'moral delinquency', he remained Archbishop and Lord Chancellor until 1567, when he was appointed Bishop of Oxford.[19]

The absence of Gaelic-speaking ministers led to the adoption of a gradualist policy, similar to that used in Catholic areas of Northern England.[20] 'Occasional conformity' allowed the use of pre-Reformation rites, combined with acceptance of the established Church; this practice persisted in both England and Ireland well into the mid-18th century.[21]

Lack of Irish Gaelic literature was another restriction; shortly before his death in 1585, Nicholas Walsh began translation of the New Testament. Continued by John Kearny and Nehemiah Donnellan, it was finally printed in 1602 by William Daniel, who also translated the Book of Common Prayer, or BCP, in 1606. An Irish version of the Old Testament was published in 1685 by Narcissus Marsh, but the revised BCP was not available until 1712.[22]

17th century[edit]

James Ussher, Archbishop of Armagh
Main article: Nonjuring schism

At the beginning of the 17th century, most native Irish were Catholic, with Protestant settlers in Ulster establishing an independent Presbyterian church. Largely confined to an English-speaking minority in The Pale, the most important figure of the Church's development was Dublin-born theologian and historian, James Ussher, Archbishop of Armagh from 1625 to 1656. In 1615, the Church of Ireland drew up its own confession of faith, similar to the English version, but more detailed, less ambiguous and often explicitly Calvinist.[23] When the Thirty-Nine Articles were formally adopted by the Irish church in 1634, Ussher ensured they were in addition to the Irish Articles; however, they were soon superseded by the Thirty Nine Articles, which remain in use to the present day.[24]

Under Charles I, the Church of Ireland claimed to be the original and universal church, while the Papacy was an innovation, thus vesting it with the supremacy of Apostolic succession.[25] This argument was supported by Ussher, and Charles' former personal chaplain, John Leslie, a key supporter of Caroline reforms in Scotland, appointed bishop of Derry & Raphoe in 1633.[26] During the 1641–1653 Irish Confederate Wars, nearly two-thirds of Ireland was controlled by the largely Catholic Confederacy, and in 1644, Giovanni Battista Rinuccini became Papal Nuncio to Ireland. Irish Catholicism had developed greater tolerance for Protestants, while sharing their hostility to elaborate ritual. Rinuccini's insistence on following Roman liturgy, and attempts to re-introduce ceremonies such as foot washing divided the Confederacy, and contributed to its rapid collapse in the 1649–1652 Cromwell's re-conquest of Ireland.[27]

The Seven Bishops acquitted, June 1688; a key factor in the removal of James, five later became Non-Jurors

The church was re-established after the 1660 Restoration of Charles II and in January 1661, meetings by 'Papists, Presbyterians, Independents or separatists' were made illegal.[28] In practice, the penal laws were loosely enforced and after 1666, Protestant Dissenters and Catholics were allowed to resume their seats in the Parliament of Ireland. In 1685, the Catholic James II became king with considerable backing in all three kingdoms; this changed when his policies seemed to go beyond tolerance for Catholicism and into an attack on the established church. His prosecution of the Seven Bishops in England for seditious libel in June 1688 destroyed his support base, while many felt James lost his right to govern by ignoring his coronation Oath to maintain the primacy of the Protestant religion.[29]

This made oaths a high-profile issue, since ministers of the national churches of England, Scotland and Ireland were required to swear allegiance to the ruling monarch. When the 1688 Glorious Revolution replaced James with his Protestant daughter and son-in-law, Mary II and William III, a minority felt bound by their previous oath and refused to swear another. This led to the Non-Juring schism, although for the vast majority, this was a matter of personal conscience, rather than political support for James.[30]

The Irish church was less affected by this controversy, although the Bishop of Kilmore and Ardagh became a Non-Juror, as did a handful of the clergy, including Jacobite propagandist Charles Leslie.[31] The Protestant Ascendancy in Ireland is traditionally viewed as beginning in 1691 when the Treaty of Limerick ended the 1689–1691 Williamite War. The Church re-established control and the 1697 Banishment Act expelled Catholic bishops and regular clergy from Ireland, leaving only the so-called secular clergy.[32]

18th century[edit]

Irish philosopher and Church of Ireland bishop George Berkeley

In 1704, the Test Act was extended to Ireland; this effectively restricted public office to members of the Church of Ireland and officially remained in place until the 1829 Catholic Relief Act. However, the practice of occasional conformity continued, while many Catholic gentry by-passed these restrictions by educating their sons as Protestants, their daughters as Catholics; Edmund Burke, who was raised Church of Ireland but whose parents simultaneously raised his sister Juliana Catholic, is one example.[33]

It is estimated fewer than 15 – 20% of the Irish population were nominally members of the church, which remained a minority under pressure from both Catholics and Protestant Nonconformists. The 1719 Toleration Act allowed Nonconformists freedom of worship, while the Irish Parliament paid their ministers a small subsidy known as the 'regium donum.'[34]

Although willing to permit a degree of flexibility, like their English counterparts, Irish bishops viewed their status as the national church to be non-negotiable and used their seats in the Irish House of Lords to enforce this. However, in 1725 Parliament passed the first in a series of 'temporary' Indemnity Acts, which allowed office holders to 'postpone' taking the oaths; the bishops were willing to approve these, since they could be repealed at any point.[35]

In the 17th century, religious and political beliefs were often assumed to be the same; thus Catholics were considered political subversives, simply because of their religion. During the 18th century, sectarian divisions were replaced by a growing sense of Irish autonomy; in 1749, Bishop Berkeley issued an address to the Catholic clergy, urging them to work together with the church in the (Irish) national interest.[36] After 1750, the government increasingly viewed Catholic emancipation as a way to reduce the power of Protestant nationalists like the United Irishmen; this had potential implications for the church since the requirement non-church members pay tithes was deeply resented.[37] The movement ended after the 1798 Rebellion and Ireland's incorporation with Britain.

19th to 20th centuries[edit]

Following the legal union of Ireland and the Kingdom of Great Britain by the Act of Union 1800, the Church of Ireland was also united with the Church of England to form the United Church of England and Ireland. At the same time, one archbishop and three bishops from Ireland (selected by rotation) were given seats in the House of Lords at Westminster, joining the two archbishops and twenty-four bishops from the Church of England.

The Irish Church was over-staffed, with 22 bishops, including 4 archbishops, for an official membership of 852,000, less than that of the Church of England's Diocese of Durham. The Church Temporalities (Ireland) Act 1833 reduced these to 12, as well as making financial changes. Part of a series of reforms by the 1830–1834 Whig government that included the Reform Act 1832, it caused deep political splits. The implications of government legislating church governance was a contributory factor in the Oxford Movement and had wide repercussions for the Anglican Communion.[38]

Another source of resentment was the funding of the Church by tithes imposed on all Irish subjects, even though the majority were not members. This led to anomalies like the incumbent of a living near Bessborough, who in 1833 was receiving £1,000 per year, despite the fact the parish had no Protestants or even a church.[39] The "Tithe War" of 1831–36 led to their replacement by the tithe rent charge but they did not entirely disappear until the Irish Church Act 1869.

The Act ended the Church's status as a state organisation; its bishops were removed from the House of Lords and its property transferred to the government. Compensation was paid but in the immediate aftermath, parishes faced great difficulty in local financing after the loss of rent-generating lands and buildings.[40]


The head of the Church of Ireland is, ex officio, the Archbishop of Armagh. In 1870, immediately prior to its disestablishment, the Church provided for its internal government, led by a General Synod, and with financial and administrative support by a Representative Church Body. Like other Irish churches, the Church of Ireland did not divide when Ireland was partitioned in the 1920s and it continues to be governed on an all-Ireland basis.


Dioceses of the Church of Ireland
Map of the dioceses of the Church of Ireland
▉▉▉ Province of Armagh
▉▉▉ Province of Dublin

The polity of the Church of Ireland is episcopal church governance, as in other Anglican churches. The church maintains the traditional structure dating to pre-Reformation times, a system of geographical parishes organised into dioceses. There were more than 30 of these historically, grouped into four provinces; today, after consolidation over the centuries, there are eleven Church of Ireland dioceses or united dioceses, each headed by a bishop and belonging to one of two surviving provinces. In May 2019 the Church of Ireland Synod agreed to the merger of the dioceses of Tuam, Killala and Achonry with Limerick and Killaloe. Full merger will come into effect on the resignation or retirement of either of the current bishops. The new diocese is known as Tuam, Limerick and Killaloe and is part of the province of Dublin.[41]

The leader of the southern province is the Archbishop of Dublin, at present Michael Jackson; that of the northern province is the Archbishop of Armagh, at present Francis John McDowell. These two archbishops are styled Primate of Ireland and Primate of All Ireland respectively, suggesting the ultimate seniority of the latter. Although he has relatively little absolute authority, the Archbishop of Armagh is respected as the church's general leader and spokesman, and is elected in a process different from those for all other bishops.

General synod and policy-making[edit]

Doctrine, canon law, church governance, church policy, and liturgical matters are decided by the church's general synod. The general synod comprises two houses, the House of Bishops and the House of Representatives. The House of Bishops includes the 10 diocesan bishops and two archbishops, forming one order. The House of Representatives is made up of two orders, clergy and laity. The order of clergy holds one third of the seats while the laity holds two-thirds of the seats.[42] As of 2017, there are 216 clergy members and 432 lay members in the House of Representatives.[43] The membership of the House of Representatives is made up of delegates from the dioceses, with seats allocated to each diocese's clergy and laity in specific numbers; these delegates are elected every three years.[44] The general synod meets annually, and special meetings can be called by the leading bishop or one third of any of its orders.[45]

Changes in policy must be passed by a simple majority of both the House of Bishops and the House of Representatives. Changes to doctrine, for example the decision to ordain women as priests, must be passed by a two-thirds majority of both Houses. The two sit together for general deliberations but separate for some discussions and voting. While the House of Representatives always votes publicly, often by orders, the House of Bishops has tended to vote in private, coming to a decision before matters reach the floor of the synod. This practice has been broken only once when, in 1999, the House of Bishops voted unanimously in public to endorse the efforts of the Archbishop of Armagh, the Diocese of Armagh and the Standing Committee of the General Synod in their attempts to resolve the crisis at the Church of the Ascension at Drumcree near Portadown.[46]

Statutes and constitution[edit]

The church's internal laws are formulated as bills proposed to the Houses of the general synod, which when passed become Statutes. The church's governing document, its constitution, is modified, consolidated and published by way of statute also, the most recent edition, the 13th, being published in 2003.

Representative body[edit]

The representative body of the Church of Ireland, often called the "Representative Church Body" (RCB), is the corporate trustee of the church, as established by law, and much of the church's property is vested in it. The members of the RCB are the bishops plus diocesan delegates and twelve co-opted members, and it meets at least four times a year. The staff of the representative body are analogous to clerical civil servants, and among other duties they oversee property, including church buildings, cemeteries and investments, administer some salaries and pensions, and manage the church library. While parishes, dioceses, and other parts of the church structure care for their particular properties, this is often subject to RCB rules.[47]

Lady Chapel, St. Patrick's Dublin

Orders of ministry and positions[edit]

The Church of Ireland embraces three orders of ministry: deacons, priests (or presbyters) and bishops. These orders are distinct from positions such as rectorvicar or canon.

Diocesan governance[edit]

Each diocese or united diocese is led by its Ordinary, one of the ten bishops and two archbishops, and the Ordinary may have one or more Archdeacons to support them, along with a Rural Dean for each group of parishes. There is a diocesan synod for each diocese; there may be separate synods for historic dioceses now in unions. These synods comprise the bishop along with clergy and lay representatives from the parishes, and subject to the laws of the church, and the work of the general synod and its committees and the representative body and its committees, oversee the operation of the diocese. Each diocesan synod in turn appoints a diocesan council to which it can delegate powers.

Parochial governance[edit]

Each parish has a presiding member of the clergy, assisted by two churchwardens and often also two glebewardens, one of each type of warden being appointed by the clerical incumbent, and one by popular vote. All qualified adult members of the parish comprise the general vestry, which meets annually, within 20 days each side of Easter, as the Easter Vestry. There is also a select vestry for the parish, or sometimes for each active church in a parish, comprising the presiding cleric and any curate assistants, along with relevant churchwardens and glebewardens and a number of members elected at the Easter Vestry meeting. The select vestry assists in the care and operation of the parish and one or more church buildings.

Cathedral governance[edit]

Special provisions apply to the management and operation of five key cathedrals, in Dublin (which contains two Church of Ireland cathedrals), Armagh, Down, and Belfast.


The church has disciplinary and appeals tribunals, and diocesan courts, and a court of the general synod.



The Church of Ireland experienced a major decline in membership during the 20th century, both in Northern Ireland, where around 65% of its members live, and in the Republic of Ireland. The church is still the second-largest in the Republic of Ireland, with 126,414 members in 2016 (minus 2% compared to the 2011 census results)[48] and the third-largest in Northern Ireland, with around 260,000 members.[49][50] In 2016, a peer-reviewed study published in the Journal of Anglican Studies by Cambridge University Press found that the Church of Ireland has approximately 384,176 total members and 58,000 active baptised members.[51]


The Church of Ireland has two cathedrals in Dublin: within the line of the walls of the old city is Christ Church Cathedral, the seat of the Archbishop of Dublin, and just outside the old walls is St. Patrick's Cathedral, which the church designated as the National Cathedral for Ireland in 1870. Cathedrals also exist in the other dioceses.

There is also the metropolitan cathedral church of Ireland, situated in Armagh, St Patrick's Cathedral. This cathedral is the seat of the archbishop and metropolitan, the Most Reverend John McDowell.

Offices, training of priests and teachers[edit]

The church's central offices are in Rathmines, adjacent to the former Church of Ireland College of Education, and the church's library is in Churchtown. Teacher training now occurs within the Dublin City University Institute of Education, overseen by the Church of Ireland Centre, based at the former All Hallows College. The church operates a seminary, the Church of Ireland Theological Institute, in Rathgar, in the south inner suburbs of Dublin.

Anglican Communion[edit]

Saul church, a modern replica of an early church with a round tower, is built on the reputed spot of St Patrick's first church in Ireland.

The churches of the Anglican Communion are linked by affection and common loyalty. They are in full communion with the See of Canterbury and thus the Archbishop of Canterbury, in his person, is a unique focus of Anglican unity. He calls the once-a-decade Lambeth Conference, chairs the meeting of Primates, and is President of the Anglican Consultative Council.[52] The contemporary Church of Ireland, despite having a number of High Church (often described as Anglo-Catholic) parishes, is generally on the Low Church end of the spectrum of world Anglicanism. Historically, it had little of the difference in churchmanship between parishes characteristic of other Anglican provinces, although a number of markedly liberal, High Church or Evangelical parishes have developed in recent decades. It was the second province of the Anglican Communion after the Anglican Church of New Zealand (1857) to adopt, on its 1871 disestablishment, synodical government. It was also one of the first provinces to begin ordaining women to the priesthood (1991).

Relation with the GAFCON movement[edit]

GAFCON Ireland was launched on 21 April 2018, in Belfast, with 320 attendees from the Republic of Ireland and Northern Ireland. International speakers included Archbishops Peter Jensen (retired Archbishop of Sydney) and Gregory Venables (Primate of the Anglican Church of South America).[53] The Church of Ireland was represented at GAFCON III, held on 17–22 June 2018 in Jerusalem, by a six-member delegation which included two bishops; Ferran Glenfield of Kilmore, Elphin and Ardagh and Harold Miller of Down and Dromore.[54][55] Their participation was criticised by some members of the Church of Ireland.[56] The Church of Ireland is not a member of GAFCON and the church communicated that attendance by clergy was unofficial in "a personal capacity" and the General Synod has voted against GAFCON's statement on the Lambeth Conference.[57] GAFCON supporters refuted their critics claims, saying that they endorse Lambeth 1.10 resolution on human sexuality, which is still the official stance of the Church of Ireland, but has been rejected by the liberal provinces of the Anglican Communion. The Rev. Charles Raven stated: "the charge that GAFCON is a breakaway or separatist group is not supported by the evidence. It is a movement of reform and revitalisation which has enabled faithful Anglicans to remain within the Communion, especially in North America and Brazil. While being clear that participation in its common life is based upon fidelity to the biblical gospel, not merely upon historic ties, the Jerusalem Statement and Declaration of 2008 says quite unequivocally that 'Our fellowship is not breaking away from the Anglican Communion'."[58]

Ecumenical relations[edit]

Like many other Anglican churches, the Church of Ireland is a member of many ecumenical bodies, including the World Council of Churches, the Conference of European ChurchesChurches Together in Britain and Ireland and the Irish Council of Churches. It is also a member of the Porvoo Communion.


St. Patrick's Flag

In 1999,[59] the church voted to prohibit the flying of flags other than St Patrick's flag and the Flag of the Anglican Communion.[60] However, the Union Flag continues to fly on many churches in Northern Ireland.


The church has an official website. Its journal is The Church of Ireland Gazette, which is editorially independent, but the governing body of which is appointed by the church. Many parishes and other internal organizations also produce newsletters or other publications, as well as maintaining websites.

Doctrine and practice[edit]

The centre of the Church of Ireland's teaching is the life, death and resurrection of Jesus Christ. The basic teachings of the church include:

The 16th-century apologist, Richard Hooker, posits that there are three sources of authority in Anglicanism: scripture, tradition and reason. It is not known how widely accepted this idea is within Anglicanism. It is further posited that the three sources uphold and critique each other in a dynamic way. In Hooker's model, scripture is the primary means of arriving at doctrine; things stated plainly in scripture are accepted as true. Issues that are ambiguous are determined by tradition, which is checked by reason.[61]

Modern doctrinal debates[edit]

Ordination of women[edit]

In recent decades, the church has ordained women to all offices. In 1984, the General Synod approved the ordination of women to the diaconate and, in 1987, the first woman, Katherine Poulton, was ordained as a deacon.[62] In 1990 the church began ordaining women to the priesthood.[63] The first two women ordained were Kathleen Margaret Brown and Irene Templeton. In 2013, the church appointed its first female bishop, Pat Storey.[64]

Same-sex unions and LGBT clergy[edit]

The church has been divided over aspects of human sexuality. In 2002, the issue became pertinent as a vicar provided a blessing for a lesbian couple.[65] The denomination announced a period of discernment to allocate time to the perspectives within the discussion. In 2010, a congregation was recognised by the church for receiving an LGBTI award for offering services for LGBTI people.[66] The Church of Ireland canon defines marriage as a union between one man and one woman, and does not perform same-sex marriages, but the church also supported the legal right of same-sex couples to register a civil marriage.[67][68][69]

Civil partnerships have been allowed since 2005. The church has no official position on civil unions. In 2008, "the Church of Ireland Pensions Board ha[d] confirmed that it will treat civil partners the same as spouses."[70] The General Synod adopted the Pensions Board's policy in 2008.[71] In 2011, a cleric in the Church of Ireland entered into a same-sex civil partnership with his bishop's permission.[72][73] Assurances of sexual abstinence were not required from the cleric.[74] In 2012, the church's Clergy Pension Fund continued to recognise that "the pension entitlement of a member's registered civil partner will be the same as that of a surviving spouse."[75] Regarding cohabitation, the church said that "any view of cohabitation has to be the intention of the couple to lifelong loyalty and faithfulness within their relationship."[76] In 2004, then Archbishop John Neill said that the "Church would support the extension of legal rights on issues such as tax, welfare benefits, inheritance and hospital visits to cohabiting couples, both same gender and others."[77] The church recognises four general viewpoints within the denomination ranging from opposition to acceptance toward same-gender relationships.[78]

Prior to the referendum on same-sex marriage, the church remained neutral on the issue.[79] In 2015, the Bishop of Cork, the Rt. Rev. Paul Colton,[80] Bishop Michael Burrows of Cashel,[81] and two retired archbishops of Dublin endorsed same-sex marriage.[82] While voting "no" on gay marriage, Bishop Pat Storey endorsed civil unions.[83] Also, 55 clergy signed a letter supporting the blessing of same-sex couples.[84] In its pastoral letter, the church reiterated that, presently, church marriages are only for heterosexual couples, but that clergy may offer prayers for same-sex couples.[85] When asked about clergy entering into civil same-sex marriages, the letter stated that "all are free to exercise their democratic entitlements once they are enshrined in legislation. However, members of the clergy, are further bound by the Ordinal and by the authority of the General Synod of the Church of Ireland."[85] Services of Thanksgiving for same-sex marriage have taken place in congregations; for example, St. Audoen's Church hosted "a service of thanksgiving" for same-sex marriage.[86] LGBTI services are also allowed by the Diocese of Cork, Cloyne and Ross.[87]

REFORM Ireland, a conservative lobby, has criticised the official letter as "a dangerous departure from confessing Anglicanism" and continues to oppose same-sex marriage recognition.[88] Reflecting division, the church deferred its report on same-sex marriage to listen to all voices.[89] The Church of Ireland Gazette, although "editorially independent", endorsed a blessing rite for same-sex couples.[90] Many congregations, including cathedrals, have become publicly affirming of LGBTI rights.[91] A church report has determined that "the moral logic underpinning the negative portrayal of same-sex eroticism in Scripture does not directly address committed, loving, consecrated same-sex relationships today".[92][93] In 2017, the General Synod considered a proposal to request for public services of thanksgiving for same-sex couples, but the proposal was not passed; the church's select committee on human sexuality recommended that the bishops continue to study the issues.[94] There were 176 votes against the motion to request public services, 146 in favour, and 24 abstentions.[95] The Bishop of Cork, Paul Colton, declared his support for same-sex marriage ceremonies in the Church of Ireland.[96]

Liturgical issues[edit]

Irish language[edit]

The first translation of the Book of Common Prayer into Irish was published in 1606. An Irish translation of the revised prayer book of 1662 was published in 1712.

The Church of Ireland has its own Irish language body, Cumann Gaelach na hEaglaise ("Irish Guild of the Church"). This was founded in 1914 to bring together members of the Church of Ireland interested in the Irish language and Gaelic culture and to promote the Irish language within the Church of Ireland. The guild aims to link its programmes with the Irish language initiatives which have been centred round Christ Church Cathedral. It holds services twice a month in Irish.[97]

From 1926 to 1995, the church had its own Irish-language teacher training college, Coláiste Moibhí. Today, there are a number of interdenominational Gaelscoileanna (schools where Irish-medium education is applied).

Frequently asked questions

What do I need to know before joining a church?

Before joining any church, you should first ask yourself if you want to join a Christian Church. If you have questions about Christianity, then you may want to read some books or watch some videos online. You can start by reading the Bible. There are many different versions of the Bible, including the King James Version (KJV), New International Version (NIV), New American Standard Version (NASB) and others. You can find these at local bookstores or online.

Do I have to be baptized?

No, you don't have to be baptized. Baptism is only done once you become a believer in Jesus Christ. Before baptism, you can still sin and commit sins without being forgiven. After baptism, you cannot sin again unless you choose to sin.

What is the difference between a church and a chapel?

A church is a building where people gather to worship God. A chapel is a smaller version of a church that may be located inside a larger structure.

Why do we call our local church “the Church”?

The word ‘church’ comes from the Latin word ‘ecclesia’ meaning ‘called out ones’. In the Bible, Jesus called his followers ‘his disciples’ (John 20:17). When he was arrested, Peter denied knowing him three times (Matthew 26:69-75), and then later confessed his faith in Christ. He said, “Lord, how many times shall I forgive my brother when he returns to sin after having received forgiveness? Up to seven times?” (Luke 17:3)

How did the early Christians distinguish themselves from pagans?

They were different than pagans because they believed in only one true God who had created them and everything else. Pagans worshipped many gods and goddesses.

Where does the term “altar” come from?

In ancient times, altars were places where sacrifices were offered to pagan deities. Today, the altar is still used for religious ceremonies.

Why do we say “God bless you” instead of saying “good morning” or “hello”?

When someone says “bless you”, they mean good wishes for their well being. Saying “good morning’ or “hello’ would not have the same meaning.

Do we need to go to church to receive salvation?

No, we don’t need to go to church in order to receive salvation. Salvation is given freely to everyone who believes in Jesus Christ. We believe that if we confess our sins, God forgives us and cleanses us from any guilt. But going to church is a way of showing gratitude to God for what he has done for us.

Is it okay to pray at work?

It is perfectly fine to pray while working. If you feel uncomfortable praying in front of others, try doing it privately before starting your day.

Why do we need a church?

We need a church because God created us to live in community with others. He wants us to share our lives with each other and enjoy His blessings. We need a place where we can learn how to love and serve Jesus Christ.

Do I have to go to church every Sunday?

No. Going to church isn't mandatory. In fact, going to church only once a week would probably be enough. But if you want to know more about God, attend services regularly.

How does a church differ from a synagogue?

Synagogues were places where Jews went to learn Torah (the Jewish Bible). In the New Testament, Christians meet at houses of prayer called “churches”.

Where did the word “baptism” originate?

Baptism comes from the Greek word baptizo, meaning “to dip.” In Christianity, baptism refers to being dipped or immersed in water as a symbol of cleansing and rebirth. 
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